Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators


Selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs are a type of drug used to treat osteoporosis. Selective estrogen receptor modulators work on tissues of the body where there are estrogen receptors. SERMs have some positive effects (agonistic) on some tissues and negative effects (antagonistic) on others, for this reason, they are named “selective estrogen receptor modulators”.


Raloxifene is the SERM used to prevent fractures in the vertebra (spine) in postmenopausal women at high risk of osteoporosis. Raloxifene is a non hormonal medicine that reduces bone loss and may even increase bone density in some individuals.

Raloxifene has agonistic effects on bone and lipid metabolism (fat metabolism) and antagonistic effects on the breast and uterus.

Side Effects

Common side effect of Raloxifene tablets are:

  • hot flashes
  • sweating
  • leg cramps
  • swelling of the ankles or wrists (peripheral edema)
  • flatulence
  • sleep disorders




Bisphosphonates are a group of traditional, non hormonal drugs used to treat osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates inhibits bone loss and therefore maintains bone density, it may even increase bone density in some individuals.

Members of the Biphosphonate Family

There are several members in the biphosphonate family. These are (generic names):

  • Alendronate
  • Clodronate
  • Etidronate
  • Pamidronate
  • Tiludronate

Some of these bisphosphonates are taken once daily, some can be taken once weekly.

How to Take Bisphosphonates

Bisphosphonates interacts with calcium salts, mineral supplements, such as iron and magnesium, and antacids. These compounds stops the bisphosphonates from being absorbed into the body, therefore, your biphosphonate tablet would not work to its full potential in stopping bone loss.

Here is a guide on how to take bisphosphonates correctly:

  1. Take your biphosphonate tablet first thing in the morning when you wake up.
  2. Take your biphosphonate tablet on an empty stomach – no breakfast, no juice, no tea, no coffee – especially with milk.
  3. Take your biphosphonate tablet with a full glass of water.
  4. Remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking your tablet (this prevents the tablet from coming up the esophagus or food pipe).
  5. Don’t eat or drink anything (except water) for at least 30 minutes or 2 hours after taking your tablet (depending on the type of biphosphonate you take).

Side Effects

The most common side effect of biphosphonate tablets are:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • abdominal pain
  • muscle pain or soreness

However, if you experience pain when you swallow, or new or worsening heartburn, you should see your doctor immediately as the bisphosphonates may be causing inflammation or damage to your esophagus (esophagitis or esophageal erosions or ulcers). This side effect occurs infrequently, but it’s always better to get it checked out and exclude it as the cause of the heartburn or pain when swallowing.

Quality Used Bone Densitometry Machines

Thank you Med Standard for partnering with us to buy and sell used medical equipment such as our state of the art used bone densitometry machines.

Are you on the market for high quality used bone densitometry machines? It is not always easy to find machines of this nature as there are only a select few that are up for sale. It is essential to filter down the options and make sure you are putting forward an investment that is going to yield positive results rather than spending money on something that will falter as soon as you purchase it. In order to get the best machines, you have to go to the right place that is going to ensure you get the finest products.

Professional Seller

Make sure you are going to a proven seller that has been around for a long time and is able to pinpoint only the best options in order to make sure you are getting something that is not fake and/or useless. These are all tested machines that are not going to be sold until they have been proven to work as expected because that is the kind of deal you deserve. A professional seller is the right way to go and in fact the only way to go in this day and age. Don’t go with someone that is not professional.

Affordable Ultrasound and Imaging Equipment

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Med Standard specializes in buying, selling, and brokering used medical equipment such as x ray machines, ultrasounds, mri, C arm and bone density devices.

Selling Used Medical Ultrasound Machines

Selling Used Medical Ultrasound Machines

fetus imagingIf you want to make sure you are headed in the right direction when it comes to the used medical ultrasound machines lying about. You want to ensure you go to the right place that has buyers who are lining up to make sure you are getting the kind of deal which will make you smile. There is no reason to go with a solution that is going to make you waste time and you will not even end up getting the kind of deal that is required. If this is something you are worried about, it is time to make a change and get going with and all that it has to offer. Here are some of the reasons to sell with this website rather than other sources you might try.

You are not going to be wasting time learning a new interface as that can be a headache most people want to avoid. You just want to go out and sell your machine right? Well, why not go with a resource that is straight to the point and is going to make sure you are headed towards a meaningful solution? This is what you get with this simple solution.

You are going to find a buyer rather quickly and that is hard to ignore in this day and age. Those who ignore this are the ones that are going to end up selling their machines in places where the buyers are not ready to spend the money that is going to make you happy as a seller. If that is something you are worried about, it is time to go with and the interface it has built. You will never have to worry about getting quality buyers ever again because all of them are here and ready to go.

Professional Support

You are never going to be left without a solution in sight as there are so many people who have gone through such issues and they just don’t know where to go after the first hurdle pops up. There is no doubt that you are going to come up with hurdles and that is the nature of the beast when you are selling machines of this nature, but that does not mean you should not be getting high quality support that is to the point and simple. This is what you get with this website and you get it right off the bat.

You are just going to be able to focus on the major details which involve selling the machine that has been in your possession as that is the main goal at the end of the day. If you are unable to do this, you are going to be left behind and that is never a good thing. If you are worried about this, it is time to go with and all that it has to offer. You will never have to fret about that medical ultrasound machine, xrays, MRI, c arms, or medical imaging equipment again.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D


Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that helps the body absorb calcium from the intestines more efficiently from food and calcium supplements. Vitamin D regulates the amount of calcium in our blood as well as bone metabolism and promotes bone mineralization.

Vitamin D in Food

Food sources of vitamin D are:

  • Cheese
  • Butter
  • Margarine
  • Fortified milk
  • Fortified cereals
  • Fish
  • Oysters

The body makes vitamin D when skin is exposed to sunshine. Adequate amounts of vitamin D can be produced with 10 to 15 minutes of sunshine three times a week.

Vitamin D Supplements

Vitamin D can also be obtained in supplements. Vitamin D comes in various forms in supplements, these are:

  • Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)
  • Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2)
  • Calcitriol

Calcitriol is the form of vitamin D that is used to treat osteoporosis, both postmenopausal osteoporosis and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Calcitriol is the most potent metabolite of vitamin D3.

Side Effects of Vitamin D Supplements

The most common side effects of vitamin D supplements are related to hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia is a disorder where there is elevated calcium levels in the blood and can result in:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • constipation
  • anorexia
  • headache
  • thirst
  • sweating
  • excessive urination


Hormone Replacement Therapy


Hormone replacement therapy is used to treat and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis as well as menopause symptoms. HRT supplies the body with the female hormones that the ovaries make; estrogen and sometimes progesterone. By replacing the female hormones, HRT can alleviate menopause symptoms and prevent bone loss associated with decreased estrogen.

Risks of HRT

Hormone replacement therapy is not a solution for all women. There can be some risks associated with its use.

Prior to 2003, it was believed that HRT protected the heart against heart disease. The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2003 showed that HRT use can increase the risks of:

  • myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • stroke
  • invasive breast cancer
  • venous thromboembolism (blood clots)

Despite these risks, hormone replacement therapy remains a valuable treatment for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and the short term relief of menopause symptoms.

Forms and Brands of HRT

Hormone replacement therapy can be prescribed in the form of tablets, capsules, patches, vaginal creams or vaginal rings. Brands of HRT includes:

Oral HRT Transdermal HRT Vaginal HRT
Activella Tablets
Amen Tablets
Aygestin Tablets
Cenestin Tablets
Estrace Tablets
Estratab Tablets
Estratest Tablets
Estratest H.S. Tablets
Femhrt 1/5 Tablets
Menest Tablets
Premarin Tablets
Premphase Tablets
Prempro Tablets
Prometrium Capsules
Provera Tablets
Alora Patches
Climara Patches
CombiPatch Patches
Estraderm Patches
Vivelle Patches
Vivelle-Dot Patches
Estrace Vaginal Cream
Estring Ring
Premarin Cream

The information provided is intended solely for general information and is NOT to replace advice from your physician and should NOT be relied upon for any diagnosis, treatment or cure. Always speak with your doctor before starting any new medications.


Calcium Supplements

Calcium is an important element to build and keep strong bones. When your dietary intake of calcium is inadequate, calcium supplements can be a good way to supplement your calcium intake. Before you start calcium supplements, check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure it is suitable for you.

There are a number of calcium supplements available, calcium carbonate is the most common form of calcium supplement, however calcium citrateis the most well absorbed type of calcium.

When selecting your calcium supplement, it is important to check the amount of elemental calcium, this can differ greatly from 200 mg elemental calcium per tablet to 600 mg elemental calcium per tablet.

Here are some tips on how to take your calcium tablets:

Increase absorption of calcium from calcium supplements by following these directions.

  1. Do not take your supplement with high fiber meals or with bulk forming laxatives as it may decrease absorption of calcium.
  2. Avoid carbonated soft drinks and antacids containing aluminium. They can interfere with the absorption of calcium.
  3. Take calcium carbonate supplements with meals to assure high stomach acid for maximum absorption.
  4. If possible, take calcium citrate, calcium phosphate or calcium hydroxyapatite as it they are the most well absorbed forms of calcium salts.
  5. Take your calcium supplement with the cofactors vitamin D, magnesium, zinc, vitamin K and manganese to maximize absorption

Other tips on how to take your calcium supplement include:

  1. Take your calcium supplement in divided doses through out the day. This is especially important if the total daily dose of calcium is 500 mg or more.
  2. Calcium supplements can sometimes cause bloating and constipation, drink plenty of fluids and exercise to reduce these side effects.

Preventing Falls

Preventing Falls


Learning about preventing falls can help people with osteoporosis avoid broken bones. Even the most minor falls can cause serious injuries as the weakened bones cannot support the body’s weight during a fall.Find out more about the causes of falls here.

Here are nine tips to help you prevent falls. Follow the acronym “SAFE BONES” for fall prevention:

Preventing Falls: Shoes

The correct shoes can help you to prevent falls and help avoid broken bones in people with osteoporosis. The weakened bones due to osteoporosis are more likely to break as they cannot support a person’s body weight during a fall.Wearing the correct footwear or shoes is one way to help prevent falls. Your shoes should:

  • be tied securely
  • have a flat sole
  • have a wide base
  • have good grip to the ground

Speak to a podiatrist. They can advise you on footwear that will provide good support and balance when walking.

Preventing Falls: Avoid Alcohol

A fall in a person with osteoporosis can lead to broken bones. Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle, and even a minor fall can cause bones to break. Avoiding alcohol is one of the tips to help prevent falls.Avoid alcohol as it interferes with alertness, balance and coordination. Even light alcohol can affect your balance and reflexes and increase your risk of falls.

Some medications can also interfere with alertness, balance and coordination. These medications can cause drowsiness and dizziness as a side effect and can increase the risk of falls. Always speak to your doctor or pharmacist about your medications if you have any concerns.

Preventing Falls: Follow Home Safety

Observing home safety can reduce your risk of falls. Falls can lead to broken bones in people with osteoporosis as their bones are weak and brittle and cannot support the body’s weight during a fall. Home safety assessments performed by yourself, a family member or a visiting nurse can drastically reduce your risk of falls.Check the following areas in your home:

  • Floors – secure loose area rugs and electrical cords
  • Lighting – improve lighting, especially on stairs
  • Stairways – secure loose banisters
  • Bathroom – use a shower chair and add grab bars for toilet and bath
  • Kitchen – remove wax on floors and make kitchen items easy to reach

Preventing Falls: Eyesight

Osteoporosis is a disease that can affect both men and women. It causes the bones in your body to become weak and brittle and prone to fractures. Reducing your risk of falls is important to help minimize broken bones.Poor eyesight can cause falls as poor vision can cause you to not see an object in your way and subsequently trip over. Have your eyesight checked on a regular basis and update your old eyeglasses or spectacles prescription.

Preventing Falls: Balance

A loss of balance can cause falls and broken bones. Preventing falls in people with osteoporosis can prevent broken bones and consequent ongoing pain.Your doctor can perform a simple test to check your balance, and if needed, recommend the use of a cane, a walker or balance training.

Exercise can also improve balance with the strengthening of stability muscle. Check with your doctor or health care professional to see what exercises strengthen stability

Preventing Falls: Orthostasis

Orthostasis means a drop in blood pressure when you stand up from sitting down or lying down. Orthostasis can cause light headedness and dizziness and lead to a fall. Knowing ways to overcome orthostasis is one step to take in preventing falls. Learning how to prevent falls in people with osteoporosis is important to reduce the risk of broken bones and fractures.Orthostasis can be diagnosed by your doctor. Your blood pressure is checked when you’re lying down and when you’re standing.

If you suffer from orthostasis, it is recommended that you stand up slowly from sitting down or lying down. When getting up from bed, sit on the edge of the bed for a few minutes before standing up. If you still feel dizzy or light headed, sit down again for a few more minutes before trying to stand up again.

Some medications can cause orthostasis. Always speak to your doctor about the medications you are taking and see if any adjustments can be made to reduce orthostasis.

Preventing Falls: Night Lamps

It is a good idea to have night lamps in your bedroom, hallways and bathrooms. Night lamps provide lighting during the night in case you wake up during the night to visit the bathroom. Inadequate lighting during the night can cause you to trip over objects and possibly suffer a broken bone or fracture.Get a family member to help install night lamps. In addition, performing a home safety assessment can greatly reduce your risk of a fall.

Exercise and Osteoporosis

Exercise slows bone loss caused by osteoporosis. Bone loss can lead to bone fractures and ongoing or chronic pain. Weight bearing exercises are the best form of exercise to slow bone loss.Weight bearing exercises include:

  • walking
  • jogging
  • cycling
  • dancing
  • weight training


Preventing Falls: Avoid Sedatives


Sedatives can affect your balance, coordination and alertness, causing a significant increased risk of falls. Preventing falls can mean saving your bones from fractures and breaks, which can occur easily in people with osteoporosis as the bones are weak and brittle.Sedatives can cause drowsiness and dizziness as a side effect and hence increase the risk of falls. Other effects of sedatives include:

  • tiredness
  • lightheaded or faint
  • unsteadiness on your feet
  • blurred or double vision
  • confusion or not able to think clearly

Sedatives such as benzodiazepines are more the most dangerous offenders. Benzodiazepines are medications such as Ativan, Halcion, Klonopin, Restoril, Valium, and similar drugs. Although these medications can increase your risk of a fall, speak to your doctor before you stop taking them.

Other medications that can increase your risk of falls are muscle relaxants and some pain medications. Speak to your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions or concerns about the medication you are currently taking

Increase Calcium

Increase Calcium Intake

Increasing calcium intake slows bone loss. As a guide, the recommended intake of calcium for adults is 1,000 milligram (1 gram) daily. Women who are post-menopausal should have 1,200 milligrams (1.2 grams) daily.

The best source of calcium is from your food. Dairy foods are the best source of calcium. Choose dairy foods that are low in fat and high in calcium. Dairy foods include:

  • milk
  • cheese
  • yoghurt
  • buttermilk

Other sources of calcium are:

  • green leafy vegetables:
    • broccoli
    • turnip greens
    • chinese cabbage
    • cauliflower
  • salmon
  • tofu
  • almonds
  • brazil nuts
  • dried beans

Calcium enriched foods, such as bread, can also be a good source of calcium.

Foods that increase calcium excretion and bone loss should be minimized. These foods include high protein foods like red meat, most cereal grains, alcohol and caffeine.

If it is not possible to obtain enough calcium from your diet, you can take calcium supplements. Check with your doctor before you start calcium supplements.

Causes of Falls

Causes of Falls


Falls can cause broken or fractured bones which can lead to chronic pain and impair mobility. A person with osteoporosis and has a fall is more likely to break or fracture a bone because their bones are weak and brittle. Broken bones and fractures typically occur in the hip, wrist, pelvis, ribs or spine.

Falls can be caused by some medications which may cause:

  • drowiness
  • dizziness
  • blurred or double vision
  • confusions

Some medical conditions may also put you at higher risk of having a fall. These medical conditions include:

  • low blood pressure
  • stroke
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • arthritis
  • Meniere’s disease (affects the middle ear – causes vertigo)
  • Poorly controlled diabetes
  • Poorly controlled epilepsy
  • Brain disorders
  • Thyroid problems

Other causes of falls are:

Physical Factors Envoronmental Factors
• poor balance
• muscle weakness
• joint stiffness
• limited neck movements
• unsuitable footwear
• poor vision
• inactivity
• dizziness
• loose mats or rugs
• uneven paving and walkways
• slippery surfaces (in the bath or shower)
• no handrails on stairs
• poor lighting

Falls often occur in the evening and at night due to poor light and tiredness.